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Crop plants encounter environmental stresses, both abiotic and biotic stresses. Abiotic stress has main impact on the crop productivity worldwide, reducing.
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- Abiotic Stresses in Crop Plants | NHBS Academic & Professional Books
- 1st Edition
- ENGINEERING CROP PLANTS AGAINST ABIOTIC STRESS: CURRENT ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROSPECTS
- chapter and author info
Benton Richard Fortey View All. Go to British Wildlife. Conservation Land Management. Go to Conservation Land Management. Click to have a closer look. Select version. About this book Contents Customer reviews Biography Related titles. Images Additional images. About this book Abiotic Stresses in Crop Plants is based to a great extent on the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of tolerance of commonly encountered abiotic stresses in nature.
Role of microorganisms in alleviation of abiotic stresses for sustainable agriculture Customer Reviews Review this book. Current promotions. Britain's Plant Galls. More Info. Plant Ecology. The Nature of Plant Communities. Darwin's Most Wonderful Plants. British Plant Galls. Plants That Kill.
The World of Crocuses. Plant Ecology in the Middle East. How Plants Work. Other titles from CABI. Food Plants of the World. Below Ground Interactions in Tropical Agroecosystems. Equine Learning and Behaviour. British and Irish Butterflies. Blackberries and Their Hybrids.
Abiotic Stresses in Crop Plants | NHBS Academic & Professional Books
Medicinal Plants of the World. Microbiological Methods for Assessing Soil Quality. The Mango. Europe's Changing Woods and Forests. Feline Behaviour and Welfare. It is an elegant innovation of land plants to deploy an outermost shield derived from simple molecules, which is fundamental to their success in terrestrial colonization for review, see Shepherd and Wynne Griffiths, ; Yeats and Rose, ; Fich et al. By contrast, cell wall, the second barrier that is actively remodeled under abiotic stresses Shen et al. The cuticle is exclusively created by epidermal cells.
Typically, cutin is a macromolecular polyester of C16 or C18 oxygenated fatty acids FAs , whereas waxes are a complex mixture of C24 to C34 FA derivatives, including alcohols, aldehydes, alkanes, esters, and ketones. Their biosynthetic pathways are nearly resolved and have been well documented see Pollard et al. Notably, two distinct modification pathways are involved in wax generation, the alcohol-forming or acyl-reduction pathway for primary alcohols and esters, together with the alkane-forming or decarbonylation pathway for aldehydes, alkanes, secondary alcohols, and ketones.
To assemble the apoplastic cuticle, these materials need to be exported from the ER to the plasma membrane PM , and then across the PM through the cell wall onto the outer surface where cutin monomers polymerize and wax members crystallize. Membrane vesicle trafficking McFarlane et al. The likely extracellular relays for traversing the hydrophilic cell wall are non-specific lipid transfer proteins nsLTPs , a group of small and basic proteins bearing a hydrophobic pocket for lipid binding.
Then comes the last procedure of cutin production, i. The crosslink is formed directly or via a bridging molecule, e. However, both the polymerization mechanism and the polyester architecture have been longstanding enigmas. Nevertheless, since the fruit of CUS1 null mutant, cutin deficient 1 cd1 , are not fully deprived of cutin, non-enzymatic mechanisms cannot be ruled out yet Yeats et al.
Drought tolerance is closely associated with wax accumulation in a wide variety of plant species see reviews Borisjuk et al. With respect to multistress tolerance, however, wax composition makes a difference and the alcohol-forming pathway seems to outperform the alkane-forming one. It is highly possible that in CER1-overexpressing plants, cold tolerance was compromised, in parallel with pathogen defense and leaf growth, although water deficit resistance was improved Bourdenx et al.
Indeed, increased level of n -alkane coupled with decreased level of primary alcohols led to cold susceptibility and growth retardation. In contrast, higher contents of both resulted in better viability under drought and freezing without disturbing plant growth Zhang et al. The stress-resistant performance of FAR-overexpressing plants is thus intriguing. Another good candidate for genetic engineering might be CER6, the major 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase KCS that catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting condensation step of FA elongation, as its overexpression could elevate total wax output with little alteration of the composition.
Of note, it was not the cauliflower mosaic virus CaMV 35S promoter but the native one that could drive CER6 expression high enough to achieve significantly greater wax quantity in transgenic Arabidopsis Hooker et al. In addition to the enzymes, transporters can also be taken into consideration. Notably, more chances reside in manipulating the TFs that control cuticle generation, which will be discussed in the end. FAs thereby have a profound impact on membrane properties. Particularly, their unsaturation degree is a major determinant of membrane fluidity in that UFA chain will create a kink at a cis -double bond, which serves as steric hindrance in intermolecular package leading to a more fluid state Hazel, ; Mikami and Murata, Membrane fluidity is susceptible to various abiotic stresses, extreme temperatures in particular.
Both cold-driven rigidification and heat-driven fluidization can cause biomembrane dysfunction, as exemplified by protein deactivation and ion leakage Hazel, Cytoskeleton destabilization is also a direct consequence Sangwan et al. Membrane remodeling is thus of especial importance in plants, which are poikilothermic organisms. Indeed, adjusting the unsaturation degree of the FA tails in bilayer interior is favored by plants in offsetting thermal perturbations to maintain the optimal range of fluidity. Particularly, there is a very close relationship between chilling tolerance and the unsaturation level of chloroplastic phosphatidylglycerol PG for review, see Nishida and Murata, ; Iba, In thylakoid membranes that are biased toward glycolipids, PG is the only phospholipid species present.
PSII is vulnerable to photoinhibition, in which the D1 protein of the reaction center is bound to continuous photodamage followed by repair via proteolysis and synthesis Takahashi and Murata, ; Liu et al.
Desaturation of PG has been shown to protect PSII against cold-enhanced photoinhibition, which contributes to chilling tolerance Moon et al. This is also applicable to other stresses that can intensify photoinhibition Takahashi and Murata, Indeed, specifically elevating the unsaturation level of PG accelerated the turnover of the D1 protein Sun et al. It is noteworthy that polyunsaturated UFAs, upon liberation by lipase from glycerolipids, also serve as the raw material of oxylipins, bioactive molecules involved in diverse physiological processes, including stress resistance see review Savchenko et al.
Particularly, linolenic acid gives birth to jasmonic acid and its derivatives, namely jasmonates JAs , a group of stress hormones with a well-understood role in launching wound response. There is emerging evidence that JA is also implicated in defense against other stresses, such as salt Ryu and Cho, ; Yang et al.
To resist various stresses like cold and wounding, the level of is usually elevated. On the contrary, gene silencing of FAD7 enabled transgenic tobacco Nicotiana tabacum to abide high temperatures Murakami et al.
Hence, inducible overexpression of FADs might be better so that heat tolerance can be covered. The unsaturation level of chloroplast PG is otherwise determined by the substrate specificity of plastid glycerolphosphate acyltransferase GPAT , which catalyzes the first reaction to esterify FAs into glycerolipids. Interestingly, GPATs from Arabidopsis resistant and squash Cucurbita moschata sensitive respectively assimilated the chilling behavior of tobacco intermediate Murata et al. Actually, under saline situations, S. Transformation with AhACP1 from peanut Arachis hypogaea into tobacco resulted in significantly higher contents of and accompanied with more tolerance against cold Tang et al.
The two types of RS are intertwined with each other. Virtually all abiotic stresses can trigger a burst of both ROS and RCS, turning their scavengers into general defenses. Nevertheless, ROS and MG have been identified to play a signaling role at low levels, which are also tactically exploited to facilitate stress perception and retort their elicitors [see review Hasanuzzaman et al. Therefore, it is pivotal to maintain the delicate RS homeostasis, which needs to be taken into account in manipulating RS scavengers for multistress tolerance. Plant cells carry an even heavier burden of ROS imposed by the electron transport chain of chloroplasts.
Once overproduced, these small chemicals can readily attack various biomolecules encompassing carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, leading to oxidative catastrophe including enhanced photoinhibition and membrane lesions, which can be measured by the production of MDA from UFA peroxidation Takahashi and Murata, ; Guo et al.
Actually, MDA is a latent RCS that can initiate a new round of attack in acidic conditions, forming covalent adducts known as advanced lipoxidation end-products ALEs , leading to protein dysfunction and consequent ROS proliferation Farmer and Davoine, ; Deng et al. Plants have therefore developed a sophisticated ROS scavenging system utilizing both non-enzymatic and enzymatic means.
A good many metabolites possess antioxidant properties, such as betalains, carotenoids, flavonoids, and vitamin E Gechev et al. Other enzymes, such as glutathione S -transferase GST and ferritins, also partake in detoxification see reviews Mittler et al. Undoubtedly, multistress tolerance can be acquired via engineering the detoxifying enzymes. APXs, key enzymes ensuring H 2 O 2 removal, helped transgenic plants oppose drought, salt and high light Pang et al.
Additionally, it should be cautious in crop cultivation that excessive use of fertilizer nitrogen can depress the ROS scavenging system leading to increased stress susceptibility Kong et al. Methylglyoxal, a major type of RCS, is drawing increasing attention in stress scenario. In plant cells, glycolysis operates as the principal source of this cytotoxin, due to the non-enzymatic dephosphorylation of two intermediates, glyceraldehydephosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Once overaccumulated, MG can also damage various biomolecules, especially with its aldehyde group.
The former two enzymes work sequentially in a GSH-dependent way. Subsequently, D -lactate is processed into pyruvate by D -lactate dehydrogenase. It is ingenious that the toxic byproduct is not just eliminated, but recycled into an essential metabolite Hoque et al.
Remarkably, GSH not only serves as a bridge between the antioxidant and glyoxalase systems, but can also trap NO see below , the primary reactive nitrogen species RNS interwoven with ROS, highlighting its significance in RS homeostasis and stress defense. Genetic manipulation of the glyoxalase system, individually or together, to potentiate tolerance against multiple abiotic stresses has worked in various plant species, as exemplified by tobacco plants transformed with Gly I, which are capable of resisting drought, salt, heavy metals, and oxidative stress Hoque et al.
There are also some minor routes available for MG neutralization. Accordingly, ectopic expression of AKR guarded transgenic tobacco exposed to heat and oxidative stress Hasanuzzaman et al. Heat shock proteins HSPs are well-known molecular chaperones, which are induced or constitutively expressed to facilitate protein folding, assembly, transport, and degradation. The anti-stress role of HSPs is not limited to their definition. In fact, this large family is a universal salvation system employed by virtually all living organisms to counteract all detrimental conditions that can induce protein damage, wherein they function to prevent aggregation of denatured proteins, assist in their refolding or present them to lysosomes or proteasomes for proteolysis, thereby restoring cellular homeostasis for review, see Kregel, ; Wang et al.
Besides, some unusually hydrophilic proteins, such as late embryogenesis abundant LEA and cold-regulated COR members might also function as chaperones to stabilize proteins and membranes against stress injury see review Thomashow, HSP70 is the most conserved one across different species, which consists of an N-terminal ATPase domain and a C-terminal substrate-binding domain. Despite that it seems to be a negative regulator of HS response, substantial evidence has bonded it to thermoprotection in living organisms Sung and Guy, ; Montero-Barrientos et al. However, it should be noted that in Arabidopsis its constitutive overproduction had pleiotropic consequences, dwarfism for instance Sung and Guy, By contrast, smHSP is the most diverse one in higher plants, with many subclasses distinct in protein sequence, cellular location and induction pattern, highlighting their special importance.
Under stress challenges, drastically accumulated smHSPs are likely to seize non-native proteins to avoid their aggregation and then transfer them to ATP-dependent chaperones such as the HSP70 system for renaturation see reviews Sun et al. It was newly reported that Arabidopsis transformed with HSP Compatible solutes are small organic compounds with electrical neutrality, high solubility and low toxicity that can even mount up to fairly high concentrations inside cells with few perturbations.
Basically, qualified molecules are sugars, amino acids and their derivatives such as raffinose, trehalose, inositol, mannitol, proline Pro , and glycine betaine GB. Pro, a widely present one, is also able to buffer cellular redox potential and induce gene expression for review, see Yancey, ; Ashraf and Foolad, ; Slama et al. There have been successful cases of improving stress tolerance via genetic manipulating the metabolic enzymes of some compatible solutes. For example, raffinose is derived from sucrose via addition of galactose, which is donated by galactinol created from UDP-galactose and myo -inositol by galactinol synthase GOLS.
Transgenic plants expressing this key enzyme could withstand cold, drought and salt Sun et al. Alternatively, in spite that further knowledge is required to optimize the efficiency and minimize side effects, exogenous application of these solutes is emerging to be a more feasible and effective way, especially for GB, as the productivity of its biosynthetic enzymes was limited by substrate availability in engineered plants Ashraf and Foolad, In combat against abiotic stresses, the five general defenses are orchestrated by an intricate regulatory network composed of numerous signaling molecules and gene regulation factors.
Here, we will just deal with some better characterized ones. Crosstalk between signaling molecules focused in the review in botanic responses to abiotic stresses. For simplification, the two effects are shown in combination. Chances to generate multistress tolerance based on the regulatory network underlying the general defenses.
Phytohormones such as ABA, ethylene ET , JA, and salicylic acid SA are important organizers of systemic stress defense, which coordinate in the elaborate hormonal signalsome for review, see Wania et al. Notably, melatonin, a universal multi-regulatory molecule across all lifeforms, is increasingly recognized as a potent biostimulator against stress in plant. Particularly, components of all biochemical defenses remarked above can be mobilized by ABA, including cuticular waxes Lee and Suh, , Yin et al. For sequestration of this hormone, two ways are available.
One is hydroxylation involving cytochrome P type enzyme CYPA , the other is conjugation to glucose by glycosyltransferase. The latter actually creates a bin for ABA recycling carried out by glycosidase, offering a shortcut for stress induction. Upon phosphorylation, downstream targets, such as ion channels, metabolic enzymes and TFs, effectuate robust stress response. Significantly, ABA can also induce organic changes to cope with unfavorable situations.
The well-known one is the closure of stomata, minute pores formed by paired guard cells to permit gas exchange, which can reduce water loss from transpiration and thus mitigate dehydration.
This movement is achieved by modulating the activities of ion channels and aquaporins. Another special one is the dormancy of seed, which can avoid the existing stresses and await conditions suitable for germination. The viability of stressed seed is largely dependent on their coat properties Xu et al.
Both endogenous elevation and exogenous addition of ABA are efficient in supporting plants confronting with various stresses. The development of ABA analogs with higher stability is promising in field application. Therefore, it is important to get better understandings of ABA homeostasis, its extensive biological effects and crosstalk with other pathways for designing strategies that can impart crop stress tolerance at little expense of the economic traits.
In planta , ROS are continuously generated as byproducts of aerobic metabolism in distinct intracellular compartments involving chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. However, as already mentioned, they are not just toxins that need to be removed, but signaling molecules indispensable for diverse physiological processes including stress resistance.
Of note, an ROS signal is shaped by multiple factors such as dose, duration, origin, and type Gechev et al. Herein, the focus is on H 2 O 2 , the relatively stable and less reactive ROS that takes the core node of stress signaling. In the apoplast, ROS can be initiatively produced upon stress stimuli by various enzymes. Actually, it is an important converging node of stress signaling. To date, many MAPKs and different cascades have been identified to differentially decode H 2 O 2 signal, albeit it remains elusive how the specificity is determined. Actually, reversible thiol oxidation may be a direct and important way in conveying H 2 O 2 signal, rendering a large pool of substrates as potential sensors see reviews Choudhury et al.
With the consequently altered functions of diverse effectors, including kinases, phosphatases, TFs, metabolic enzymes, and ion channels, cellular processes are extensively rearranged. Interestingly, thiol modification may also offer a node for signal crosstalk and modulation via raising a competition between H 2 O 2 and other factors, including the two gasotransmitters see below. As with H 2 O 2 , two toxic gaseous molecules, H 2 S and NO, at low concentrations, also display impressive powers in safeguarding plants against a broad spectrum of stresses.
The two share in common many anti-stress mechanisms. The most conspicuous role should be their ability to squash oxidative stress, wherein both of them not only act as antioxidants in their own right but can repress ROS production and activate ROS elimination. Not surprisingly, carbon monoxide CO , the first recognized gasotransmitter, is also an elicitor of stress response, though CO research in this theme is still in its infancy see review Wang and Liao, The three RS, H 2 O 2 , H 2 S, and NO, are usually present together during various stresses and exhibit intricate interactions depending on the context.
With the antagonist face, it can ablate NO accumulation and abet stomata opening see review Lisjak et al. Noteworthily, this reverse demonstrates that H 2 S is not a referee that functions through monitoring ROS and NO, as once proposed Hancock and Whiteman, , but indeed an active player, albeit the three are not always in the same team.
Moreover, with the emergence of another RS player, namely MG, the situation will be further complicated. Interestingly, as already mentioned, there is even a competition among them, with the participance of MG and GSH, since all of them can directly modulate protein function via thiol modification, namely, oxidation by H 2 O 2 , sulfhydration by H 2 S, nitrosylation by NO, glycation by MG, and glutathionylation by GSH Lisjak et al. Actually, GSH per se offers an additional way for their crosstalk, as it is a derivative of H 2 S, but a quencher of the other three.
Being notorious as air pollutants, the two gasotransmitters are actually natural products of botanic metabolism from diverse origins. Notably, GYY is a phosphorodithioate derivative that can release H 2 S slowly and steadily under physiological conditions. A pile of literature has substantially proved that foliar spray of these donors is a highly effective approach to aid plants in combating manifold stresses see reviews Guo H. Polyamines are a group of organic compounds with aliphatic nitrogen structure.
The protective role of PAs in plant response to a wide range of stresses has long been recognized see reviews Liu et al. A complexity arises in dissecting the mechanisms underlying the anti-stress effects of PAs. It is plausible that these multi-faceted substances contribute to stress defense in diverse ways, owing to their polycationic nature, RS-scavenging property, and signaling function.
For example, at the physiological PH, protonated PAs not only participate in ion homeostasis per se , but can bind to negatively charged molecules including membrane lipids and integral proteins, which help mitigate stress-induced membrane damage. PHYB is emerging as a negative regulator in stress tolerance, which belongs to a small family of chromophore-containing proteins that serve as photoreceptors to perceive red R and far-red FR light. The signaling activity of PHYB is subjected to reversible photoconversion composed of R activation and FR deactivation based on conformational change.
Once converted to the bioactive Pfr FR-absorbing form, dimeric PHYB will translocate into the nucleus, where it can interact with, and trigger the proteasomal degradation of, phytochrome interacting factors PIFs , a subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix bHLH TFs, so as to remodel the expression profile of thousands of light-responsive genes, thereby guiding photomorphogenesis Franklin and Quail, ; Zhou et al.
Warm ambient temperatures can effectively induce elongation growth, which phenocopies shade avoidance controlled by the PHY-PIF cascade.
ENGINEERING CROP PLANTS AGAINST ABIOTIC STRESS: CURRENT ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROSPECTS
Indeed, Pfr can also revert to Pr in a spontaneous way called thermal or dark reversion, which is independent of light but sensitive to temperature. Therefore, warm temperatures, particularly during night, can relieve the repression of PIF4 via quickly deactivating PHYB, together with enhancing the transcription of PIF4, thereby driving thermomorphogenesis. Notably, in rice phyB mutant, UFA content is much higher than in wild type WT , leading to better chloroplast structure and less photoinhibition under chilling stress Yang et al.
Interestingly, stronger heat tolerance has been observed in Arabidopsis phyB mutant, with the HS damper of lateral root development being relieved Song et al. This might be related to the reduction of HY5, which is a negative regulator of the unfolded protein response UPR that can be triggered by HS Nawkar et al. Rice phyB mutant also exhibits better drought tolerance owing to decreased transpiration rate involving two morphological changes.
One is reduced total leaf area per plant, which is probably due to inhibited leaf cell proliferation. However, in contrast to the observations in Arabidopsis Boccalandro et al. Similarly, antioxidant enzymes were more active in tobacco phyB mutant, which was newly reported to be more tolerant to salt Yang et al. It seems that such mutual regulation is common to various stress responses.
It is thus not surprising that overexpression of CaMs Zhou S. Remarkably, transgenic rice harboring CIPKs from wild barley Hordeum spontaneum displayed enhanced tolerance to drought and heavy metals as well. However, the behavior of Arabidopsis cbl1 mutant upon cold exposure was really inconsequent, with higher Cheong et al. Once the transduced stress cue is received, gene regulation factors active at different levels, including histone acetyltransferases HATs Stockinger et al.
Transcriptional level is still the key regulatory node. Therefore, HSFs are actually capable of launching three general defensive systems. Strikingly, the number of HSFs in plants is large and highly variable, 16 in peanut A. Such multiplicity perplexes their study and application. Besides, negative effects have been observed in ectopic expression of HSFs. Nonetheless, genetic manipulation of HSFs is still a promising avenue to confer plants multiplex tolerance for review, see Scharf et al. A safe conclusion can then be drawn that this single TF governs all of the four cellular general defenses.
To finalize, light is shed back on transcriptional regulation of cuticle biosynthesis. Not only elongation and modification enzymes, but ABC transporters and nsLTPs have at least one isoform gene targeted, directly or indirectly Seo et al. MYB96 transgenesis upgraded drought and freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis ; however, significant dwarfism was a concomitant Seo et al.
By contrast, wax production 1 WXP1 , an ERF member from Medicago truncatula , might be a better candidate, which was the one accounting for the previously mentioned observation that higher contents of both n -alkane and primary alcohols resulted in better viability under drought and freezing without disturbing the growth of transgenic Arabidopsis Zhang et al.
As one of the successful habitants thriving on the earth, there is no great surprise that plants have found smart ways to deal with abiotic stresses. The existence of general defense systems raises the feasibility to endow crops and other plants with multistress tolerance in a simplified way, albeit there are still many gaps need to be filled in before their field application. It is worth trying to find an optimal cocktail of the defensive molecules that can balance each other to minimize undesired effects. Screening for mutants, generated from gamma irradiation Yuan et al.
Moreover, defense genes from stress-resistant species that might have acquired adaptive function, as in the case of GPAT , are good candidates for transgenesis. With the help of high-throughput techniques and bioinformatic platforms, we will be able to learn more from the natural existing extremophiles like Thellungiella , and acquire more comprehensive and in-depth understandings of the stress responses of different crops.
It would be more informative to challenge them with a combination of stresses that mimics to some extent the field conditions. This abundant element in the crust plays significant roles in the easing of both abiotic and biotic stresses, though the mechanisms are under debating see reviews Debona et al. With a better knowledge of Si utilization, benefits from the addition of Si in fertilizers can be envisaged.
Furthermore, plant species that have the capacity to deprive soils of salt and heavy metals, such as S. All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Plant Sci v. Front Plant Sci. Published online Dec 7. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Edited by: Rosa M. Received Aug 16; Accepted Nov The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Abstract Abiotic stresses, such as low or high temperature, deficient or excessive water, high salinity, heavy metals, and ultraviolet radiation, are hostile to plant growth and development, leading to great crop yield penalty worldwide.
Keywords: abiotic stresses, land plants, general defenses, regulatory network, multistress tolerance. Introduction Land plants are living in an inherently harsh environment ever since their emergence. Open in a separate window. General Defenses Against Abiotic Stresses In this section, five general botanic defenses against abiotic stresses will be addressed, comprising cuticle as outermost shield, unsaturated fatty acids UFAs as membrane modulator and oxylipin precursor, RS scavengers that govern RS homeostasis, molecular chaperones that stabilize proteins and subcellular structures e.
Table 1 Chances to generate multistress tolerance based on the general defenses. Cuticle Land plants have an exterior translucent lipid structure, namely the cuticle, sealing the aerial surfaces of their organs. Reactive Oxygen Species Plant cells carry an even heavier burden of ROS imposed by the electron transport chain of chloroplasts. Molecular Chaperones Heat shock proteins HSPs are well-known molecular chaperones, which are induced or constitutively expressed to facilitate protein folding, assembly, transport, and degradation. Compatible Solutes Compatible solutes are small organic compounds with electrical neutrality, high solubility and low toxicity that can even mount up to fairly high concentrations inside cells with few perturbations.
Regulatory Network Underlying Defense Systems In combat against abiotic stresses, the five general defenses are orchestrated by an intricate regulatory network composed of numerous signaling molecules and gene regulation factors. Table 2 Chances to generate multistress tolerance based on the regulatory network underlying the general defenses. Stress Hormones Phytohormones such as ABA, ethylene ET , JA, and salicylic acid SA are important organizers of systemic stress defense, which coordinate in the elaborate hormonal signalsome for review, see Wania et al.
Table 3 Updates on crosstalk between abscisic acid and other phytohormones. Reactive Oxygen Species In planta , ROS are continuously generated as byproducts of aerobic metabolism in distinct intracellular compartments involving chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. Hydrogen Sulfide and Nitric Oxide As with H 2 O 2 , two toxic gaseous molecules, H 2 S and NO, at low concentrations, also display impressive powers in safeguarding plants against a broad spectrum of stresses.
Polyamines Polyamines are a group of organic compounds with aliphatic nitrogen structure. Phytochromes PHYB is emerging as a negative regulator in stress tolerance, which belongs to a small family of chromophore-containing proteins that serve as photoreceptors to perceive red R and far-red FR light. Gene Regulation Factors Once the transduced stress cue is received, gene regulation factors active at different levels, including histone acetyltransferases HATs Stockinger et al. Conclusion and Perspectives As one of the successful habitants thriving on the earth, there is no great surprise that plants have found smart ways to deal with abiotic stresses.
Author Contributions All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Footnotes Funding. References Ahmad P. Exogenous application of calcium to epibrassinosteroid pre-treated tomato seedlings mitigates NaCl toxicity by modifying ascorbate-glutathione cycle and secondary metabolites.
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chapter and author info
Identification and functional analysis of the autofluorescent substance in Limonium bicolor salt glands. Jasmonate and salicylate induce the expression of pathogenesis-related-protein genes and increase resistance to chilling injury in tomato fruit.
- Approaches for Enhancing Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants - CRC Press Book.
Integrative regulation of drought escape through ABA-dependent and -independent pathways in rice. Plant 11 — Nitric oxide function in plant abiotic stress. Reactive electrophile species. When bad guys become good ones: the key role of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in the plant responses to abiotic stress. Effects of NaCl stress on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Ulmus pumila L. Photosynthetica 52 — Study on pathway and characteristics of ion secretion of salt glands of Limonium bicolor.