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Table of contents

Each volume includes approximately one hundred documents covering the most significant events of the year. These documents range from presidential speeches, international agreements, and Supreme Court decisions to U. With entries from leading international scholars from around the world, the International Encyclopedia of Political Science provides a definitive, comprehensive picture of all aspects of political life, recognizing its theoretical foundations and including empirical findings from across the globe. The eight volumes examine all the main subdisciplines of political science and include coverage of comparative politics, epistemology, political economy, political sociology, and international relations.

The International Encyclopedia of Political Science provides an essential, authoritative guide to the state of political science at the start of the 21st century and for decades to come, making it an invaluable resource for a global readership, including researchers, students, citizens, and policy makers. Oxford University Press. Second edition, Over articles. This major new edition of The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World reflects the changing world with a reassessment of many of the core themes of the previous edition, and new articles on the people, concepts, and events that have shaped the world since Eighty-seven of the articles in the Second Edition are completely new; most others are thoroughly revised This edition also features a substantial new set of articles, a dozen essays on critical isssues written by influential figures.

Recognizing the importance of including varying viewpoints, the editors have commissioned these essays to provide an informed and often passionate debate on controversial topics. Patrick, Richard M. Pious, and Donald A. This is the ultimate resource for authoritative information on the American Presidency, Congress, and Supreme Court. Compiled by three leading scholars, it contains the key figures, events, and structures that have animated U. In addition to coverage of the Presidential race and election, it features biographies of all the Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Supreme Court Justices, as well as notable members of Congress, including current leadership; historical commentary on past elections, major Presidential decisions, international and domestic programs, and the key advisors and agencies of the executive branch; in-depth analysis of Congressional leadership and committees, agencies and staff, and historic legislation; and detailed discussions of landmark Supreme Court cases and the major issues facing the Court today.

Other entries define legal terms and phrases and elaborate on the wide array of government traditions. This dictionary includes all entries on major Supreme Court cases through history published in the acclaimed Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States, in addition to approximately 45 new entries for the post decisions. It also gives entries on the U. Constitution, and the nominations and successions of justices.


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Terms covered in the Companion are briefly defined and explained, and a complete case list is given. Political Handbook of the World via CQ Political Reference Suite Provides thorough and accurate information on the major aspects of each country's government and political party system.

As a convenient, one-volume print source for global political information, each edition features country profiles that include: 1 Key facts: Political status, area, population, major urban centers, official language, monetary unit, heads of government, heads of state, ambassadors, and U. Communications: Names, circulation, and political affiliation of major national media; news agencies; television coverage and Internet usage.

Congress and their districts. Designed for use by political professionals, government officials, students, scholars, and interested citizens, it contains in-depth profiles of every member as well as data on their constituencies, apportionment, and redistricting. This Web site contains profiles of members of the th Congress , th Congress , th Congress , th Congress , and th Congress Supreme Court Yearbook via CQ Political Reference Suite The Supreme Court Yearbook has provided valuable in-depth coverage and analysis of every decision from the nation's highest court since the term.

Sixteen years of annual reference is now accessible in a powerful, fully searchable online edition that lets users explore expert and timely Supreme Court coverage swiftly and comprehensively. With The Supreme Court Yearbook Online Edition, users will find: 1 Year-end overviews of Supreme Court terms from 2 Case summaries of every opinion written during each Supreme Court term 3 Essays on the most significant cases from each year and the trends in each term 4 Useful tables and figures on voting patterns and trends in constitutional law 5 Reference documents for understanding how the Supreme Court works.

Vital Statistics on American Politics via CQ Political Reference Suite Topically organized, Vital Statistics on American Politics is a rich and authoritative resource of data offering more than tables and charts covering the full spectrum of American politics dating back to Introductory material helps readers understand and interpret statistical material, and the annotated reference guide directs users to other valuable sources on political statistics.

This fully updated volume is an unrivaled reference for students, researches, and other interested citizens. Washington Information Directory via CQ Political Reference Suite The CQ Press Washington Information Directory Online Edition brings together CQ Press's wealth of contact and descriptive information on more than 10, federal government offices, regulatory agencies, congressional committees, judicial offices, public interest groups, nongovernmental organizations, and international organizations in a single, easy-to-use, and fully integrated database.

Searchable and browsable, the Washington Information Directory Online Edition provides verified and updated mailing addresses, phone and fax numbers, e-mail and Web site addresses, contact names, and descriptions for thousands of organizations—along with a letter template tool, a customizable address book, and much more. New York : Thomas Dunne Books, Main Library E The ways that U.

In this fascinating narrative, presidential historian Mark Updegrove looks at eight U. George Washington led a fragile and fledgling nation while defining the very role of the presidency. When Thomas Jefferson entered the White House, he faced a nation bitterly divided by a two-party schism far more severe than anything encountered today.

John Tyler stepped into the office of the presidency during the constitutional crisis left by the first death of a sitting president. Abraham Lincoln inherited a divided nation on the brink of war. Franklin D. His successor, Harry S. Kennedy stepped into the increasingly heated atmosphere of the cold war. In the wake of Watergate, the first unelected president, Gerald R. As the forty-fourth president takes office, Updegrove presents a timely look at these chief executives and the challenges they faced. In examining the ways in which presidents have addressed crises, Baptism by Fire illustrates the importance of character in leadership—and in the resilience of America itself.

Committees in the U. Main Library JK Congress A to Z. Congress and the Nation. Congressional Quarterly Almanac. C : Summarizes congressional activity a single year at a time. Michael Sharp. Four voting scores exclusive to the publisher indicate support of the Conservative Coalition, alliance with the member's party, support of the President's position, and recorded votes.

Interest group ratings represent the percentage of votes on which each member voted in favor of a special group's position. Sabato, Howard R. New York : Checkmark Books, c This complete A-to-Z reference guide covers the people, events, and terms involved in the electoral process. It also provides a history of elections in the United States, focusing primarily on presidential elections. New York : Facts on File, c The Hills, coauthors of Real Life Dictionary of American Politics CH, Dec'94 , offer a well-organized volume that describes the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, independent entities, commissions, and quasi-official agencies.

The first, longest section covers the executive branch, where each department's entry includes extensive historical background, milestones, organization charts, and narratives on agency roles and missions, followed by descriptions of its major subagencies, bureaus, divisions, and the programs they administer. Briefer entries describe nearly independent agencies, Congress, and the judicial branch.

Each entry also supplies mail and Web site contacts, but lacks bibliographies. Gale's valuable Federal Agency Profiles for Students, ed. A current, highly informative guide to the federal bureaucracy for the general public that will also be welcomed by students and researchers of public administration and government. London ; New York : Routledge, The entries are divided into the broad topics of central concepts of political theory, contemporary ideologies, contemporary political systems, political institutions, political forces and processes, centripetal and centrifugal forces in the nation- state, policy-making and policies, international relations, and major issues in contemporary world politics.

Among the 19 chapters in the last category are genocide, Eastern Europe, arms control and disarmament, Latin America, Asia, Africa, and democratization. A random selection of other sections includes such topics as the United Nations, health policy, social movements, identity politics, interest groups, military rule, the Islamic state, and conceptions of human nature.

A bibliography is included with each entry. Main Library JF Sharpe's source, the latest and one of the most detailed, has more than entries written by a diverse group of contributors from all perspectives and political viewpoints. Chronologically and geographically comprehensive, its entries cover all geographic areas, ancient times to the present there is an entry titled "Ancient Intelligence" but they emphasize events of the last years. Its entries for Al Qaeda, homeland security, terrorism, and war on terrorism reflect the preoccupation with terrorism since September Articles are signed and include lists of sources and see also references.

About a third of the entries are biographical; they include major political figures that have influenced the development of intelligence and espionage along with figures in major spy scandals. San Diego, Calif. Main Library JC Long predicted to give way to pan-national or economic organizations, nationalism exerts its tremendous force on all continents and in a wide variety of ways. The Encyclopedia of Nationalism captures the aims and scope of this force through a wide-ranging examination of concepts, figures, movements, and events.

It is the only encyclopedic study of nationalism available today. Los Angeles : Sage Publications, c Main Library JA With nearly entries, this resource pays considerable attention to important political messages such as political speeches, televised political advertising, political posters and print advertising, televised political debates, and Internet sites. The audiences for political communications are also central, necessitating concentration on citizen reactions to political messages, how the general public and voters in democratic systems respond to political messages, and the effects of all types of media and message types.

With particular emphasis on the 20th century, the encyclopedia contains more than cross-referenced entries that make up an up-to-date survey of topics that have been crucial to the history of humankind, including the rise and fall of communism, the advent of feminism, and the advancement of democracy Key concepts and controversial issues are clearly defined and thoughtfully analyzed, with examples from current events used to enhance the reader's understanding of the ideas presented.

Ideologies are not only considered within historical context but are also related to contemporary politics, enhancing the book's usefulness for reports, student debates, or general research. A chronology provides a linear presentation of the evolution of political thinking. Thousand Oaks, Calif. This two-volume Encyclopedia of Politics: The Left and the Right contains over articles on individuals, movements, political parties, and ideological principles, with those usually thought of as left in the left-hand volume Volume 1 , and those considered on the right in the right-hand volume Volume 2.

Westport, Conn. A Chicken in Every Pot. We are all familiar with these phrases, but did you know they began as presidential campaign slogans? Every presidential candidate must get his or her message out to the voters--but how is it done, and what exactly is the message?

Roberts and Hammond collect the many messages and discuss the speeches, buttons, television advertisements, and other means presidential hopefuls have used to get their election platforms across to--and memorized by--a huge voting public. New York : Marcel Dekker, c Reference 1 East JK9.

E : P rovides clearly written and focused A-to-Z entries on critical concepts, personalities, events, and topics in public administration. It explains how government works, defining theories and differentiating between the various agencies that are responsible for creating, enacting, and following through on public policy. Comprehensive and up-to-date, the book guides nonspecialists to vital information on the subject and provides professionals with an easy-to-use, quick reference for basic facts.

From health and the environment to education and the economy, this definitive guide covers the bureaus and agencies that manage the day-to-day activities of the government. Levy, Louis Fisher. Reference 1 East JK E53 : More than an array of information about U. Besides the expected presidential and vice-presidential biographies which focus on the subjects' years in office and sketches of persons important to the presidency first ladies and other relatives, political opponents, White House press secretaries, cabinet members , there are definitions of terms "Supply Side Economics" ; accounts of historical events "Mayaguez Capture" , legislation, and court cases; articles on presidential homes and libraries; explanations of relationships between branches of government; and delineations of the powers, prerogatives, and multiple roles of the president.

Thought-provoking entries cover portrayals of presidents on film, presidential character, and Supreme Court nominees not confirmed. Separate entries are provided for every presidential election since the first in Tables, such as the one that accompanies "Salaries, Executive" are eye-openers: while the president's salary has not changed since , those of the vice-president, cabinet members, the chief justice, and members of Congress have all nearly tripled More than 1, signed articles of them biographies by more than contributors from various institutions and disciplines cover the entire executive branch of government.

Each article ends with a bibliography; some are quite brief that on President Clinton includes one item. Bibliographies cite only author, title, and year of publication for books. More than 40 entries have accompanying tables e. There is some redundancy in entries: "Retreats, Presidential" and "Vacation Spots, Presidential" cover a lot of the same ground "See" entries and embedded cross-references noted with small-capital letters lead researchers through the four volumes. The American public, remembering the aid provided by the French during the Revolutionary War, was largely enthusiastic, and hoped for democratic reforms that would solidify the existing Franco-American alliance and transform France into a republican ally against aristocratic and monarchical Great Britain.

In an expression of optimism about the revolution's chances for success, Lafayette sent the key to Washington, who displayed it prominently in the executive mansion. Sensing an opportunity, the slaves of northern St. Domingue organized and planned a massive rebellion which began on August 22, Their successful revolution resulted in the establishment of the second independent country in the Americas after the United States.

From to , the French Revolution became increasingly radical. A wave of bloody massacres spread through Paris and other cities late that summer, leaving more than one thousand people dead. Then followed a period labeled by some historians as the " Reign of Terror ," between the summer of and the end of July , during which 16, official death sentences were carried out against those accused of being enemies of the revolution. Though originally most Americans were in support of the revolution, the political debate in the U.

Thomas Jefferson became the leader of the pro-French faction that celebrated the revolution's republican ideals. Though originally in support of the revolution, Alexander Hamilton soon led the faction which viewed the revolution with skepticism believing that "absolute liberty would lead to absolute tyranny" and sought to preserve existing commercial ties with Great Britain.

Jefferson and his faction wanted to aid the French, while Hamilton and his followers supported neutrality in the conflict. Jeffersonians denounced Hamilton, Vice President Adams, and even the president as friends of Britain , monarchists , and enemies of the republican values that all true Americans cherish. Although the president, who believed that the United States was too weak and unstable to fight another war with a major European power, wished to avoid any and all foreign entanglements, [] a sizable portion of the American public was ready to help the French and their fight for "liberty, equality, and fraternity.

He appealed to Washington, and Washington allowed him to remain, making him the first political refugee to seek sanctuary in the United States. He also threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to any of the warring countries.

Washington eventually recognized that supporting either Great Britain or France was a false dichotomy. He would do neither, thereby shielding the fledgling U. The public had mixed opinions about Washington's Proclamation of Neutrality. Those who supported Madison and Jefferson were far more likely to be in support of the French Revolution, as they saw it as an opportunity for a nation to achieve liberty from tyrannical rule.

Several merchants were extremely happy that the President decided to remain impartial to the revolution. They believed that if the government took a stance on the war, it would ruin their trade relations with the British completely. This economic element was a primary reason for many Federalist supporters wanting to avoid increased conflict with the British. Upon going to war against France, the British Royal Navy began intercepting ships of neutral countries bound for French ports. The French imported large amounts of American foodstuffs, and the British hoped to starve the French into defeat by intercepting these shipments.

Congress responded to these "outrages" by passing a day embargo on all shipping, foreign and domestic, in American harbors. This policy change did not defeat the whole movement for commercial retaliation, but it cooled passions somewhat. The embargo was later renewed for a second month, but then was permitted to expire. Although confirmed by a comfortable margin in the U. Senate 18—8 , debate on the nomination was bitter. Jay was instructed by Alexander Hamilton to seek compensation for seizure of American ships and to clarify the rules governing British seizure of neutral ships.

He was also to insist that the British relinquish their posts in the Northwest. In return, the U. He also asked Jay, if possible, to seek limited access for American ships to the British West Indies. The treaty that emerged several weeks later, commonly known as the Jay Treaty , was, in Jay's words "equal and fair. For the British, America remained neutral and economically grew closer to Britain. The Americans also guaranteed favorable treatment to British imports.

In return, the British agreed to evacuate the western forts, which they had been supposed to do by They also agreed to open their West Indies ports to smaller American ships, allow small vessels to trade with the French West Indies, and set up a commission that would adjudicate American claims against Britain for seized ships, and British claims against Americans for debts incurred before As the treaty contained neither concessions on impressment nor statement of rights for American sailors, another commission was later established to settle both those and boundary issues.

Once the treaty arrived in Philadelphia in March , Washington—who had misgivings about the treaty's terms—kept its contents confidential until June, when a special session of the Senate convened to give its advice and consent. Peter Trubowitz writes that during these several months Washington wrestled with "a strategic dilemma," balancing geopolitics and domestic politics.

If he shelved the treaty to silence his political detractors, there would likely be war with Great Britain, which had the potential to destroy the government from the outside. Although the Senate hoped to keep the treaty secret until Washington had decided whether or not to sign it, it was leaked to a Philadelphia editor who printed it in full on June Southern planters, who owed the pre-Revolution debts to the British and who were now not going to collect for the slaves lost to them, viewed it as a great indignity. As a result, the Federalists lost most of the support they had among planters.

Randolph was forced to resign from the cabinet, his opposition to the treaty became worthless. On August 24, Washington signed the treaty. By late , the Federalists had gained twice as many signatures in favor of the treaty as had been gathered against.


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  8. Public opinion had been swayed in favor of the treaty. The new debate was not only over the merits of the treaty, but also about whether the House had the power under the Constitution to refuse to appropriate the money necessary for a treaty already ratified by the Senate and signed by the president. He refused to do so, invoking what later became known as executive privilege , [] and insisted that the House did not have the Constitutional authority to block treaties.

    The treaty pushed the new nation away from France and towards Great Britain. The French government concluded that it violated the Franco-American treaty of , and that the U. After the signing of treaty, the British withdrew their support from several Native Americans tribes, while the Spanish, fearing that the Jay Treaty signaled the creation of an Anglo-American alliance, sought to appease the United States. Following the end of the Revolutionary War the ships of the Continental Navy were gradually disposed of, and their crews disbanded. The frigate Alliance , which had fired the last shots of the war in , was also the last ship in the Navy.

    Many in the Continental Congress wanted to keep the ship in active service, but the lack of funds for repairs and upkeep, coupled with a shift in national priorities, eventually prevailed over sentiment. The ship was sold in August , and the navy disbanded. In —85, Algerian pirate ships seized two American ships Maria and Dauphin and held their crews for ransom.

    Piracy against American merchant shipping had not been a problem before , when ships from the Thirteen Colonies were protected by British warships and treaties nor was it a problem during the revolution, as the French Navy assumed the responsibility as part of the alliance treaty. Only after the U. Defenseless, the American government could do little to resist. Opponents asserted that payment of tribute to the Barbary states was a better solution than building a navy, which they argued would only lead to calls for a navy department, and the staff to operate it.

    This would then lead to more appropriations of funds, which would eventually spiral out of control, giving birth to a "self-feeding entity. Within months, they had captured 11 American vessels and more than a hundred seamen. The cumulation of all these events led Washington to request Congress to establish a standing navy.

    These ships were the first ships of what eventually became the present-day United States Navy. The president was unhappy with the arrangement, but realized the U. In the late s, Georgia grew eager to firm up its trans-Appalachian land claim , and meet citizen demands that the land be developed.

    The southern portion of this region was also claimed by Spain as part of Spanish Florida. One of Georgia's efforts to accomplish its goals for the region was a plan developed by governor George Mathews and the Georgia General Assembly. It soon became a major political scandal, known as the Yazoo land scandal. Spain had, since , controlled the lands west of the Mississippi River.

    Those lands consisted of Spanish Louisiana and New Orleans. Great Britain, from to , controlled the lands east of the Mississippi, British Florida , north from the Gulf of Mexico. Thereafter, Spain attempted to slow the migration of American settlers into the region, and to lure those already there to secede from the United States. After Washington issued his Proclamation of Neutrality he became concerned that Spain, which later that year joined Britain in war against France, might work in concert with Britain to incite insurrection in the Yazoo against the U. As Spain's prime minister, Manuel de Godoy , was attempting to do so, he learned of John Jay's mission to London, and became concerned that those negotiations would result in an Anglo-American alliance and an invasion of Spanish possessions in North America.

    Sensing the need for rapprochement, Godoy sent a request to the U. Signed on October 27, , the treaty established intentions of peace and friendship between the U. Perhaps most importantly, Pinckney's Treaty granted both Spanish and American ships unrestricted navigation rights along the entire Mississippi River, as well as duty-free transport for American ships through the Spanish port of New Orleans, opening much of the Ohio River basin for settlement and trade.

    Agricultural produce could now flow on flatboats down the Ohio River to the Mississippi and on to New Orleans. From there the goods could be shipped around the world. Spain and the United States further agreed to protect the vessels of the other party anywhere within their jurisdictions and to not detain or embargo the other's citizens or vessels.

    The final treaty also voided Spanish guarantees of military support that colonial officials had made to Native Americans in the disputed regions, greatly weakening those communities' ability to resist encroachment upon their lands. It also enabled and encouraged American settlers to continue their movement west, by making the frontier areas more attractive and lucrative. Washington's wife Martha managed the presidential household in the federal capital, in addition to supervising affairs at Mount Vernon. Often referred to as "lady Washington" the term " First Lady " did not come into common use until the mid 19th century [] , she also organized weekly public salons , where she met with visiting dignitaries, members of Congress, and citizens from the local community.

    Designed to give the public access to the president and to project a dignified public image of the presidency, these receptions also elicited criticism. Opposition newspapers derided them as monarchical and wasteful.

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    Nonetheless, the gatherings became a fixture in the capital's social scene, and continued throughout Washington's presidency. Washington made three major tours around the country. Because he was himself from the South, Washington decided to visit the Northern states first. Washington then traveled to Boston, where a large crowd greeted him. About a week after arriving in Boston, he traveled north to Portsmouth, New Hampshire , and circled back to New York, stopping in Waltham and Lexington.

    The trip was a success, serving to consolidate his popularity and improve his health. During his time in New England, Washington inspected possible sites for roads and canals and observed textile mills. In , Washington toured the South, largely to promote national unity amid uproar over Hamilton's economic plan and slavery. The trip began on March 20, , when Washington and a small group of aides began sailing down the Severn River. After sailing through a large storm, they arrived in Annapolis. After leaving Richmond, they went to Petersburg , than Emporia, Virginia.

    The group's last stop in North Carolina was Wilmington , after which they traveled to Georgetown, South Carolina , subsequently stopping in Charleston. Washington had never traveled south of North Carolina prior to , and he was warmly received in Charleston. In late May, the group turned around, stopping at many Revolutionary War battle sites.

    On June 11, , they arrived back at Mount Vernon. When the federal government began operations under the new form of government in the spring of , two states— North Carolina and Rhode Island —were not yet members of the Union as neither had ratified the Constitution. Three new states were admitted to the Union each on an equal footing with the existing states while Washington was in office: Vermont , on March 4, ; [] [g] Kentucky , on June 1, ; [] [h] and Tennessee , on June 1, As his second term entered its final year in , Washington was exhausted from years of public service.

    Though he remained in fine mental condition, his physical health had begun to decline. He was also bothered by the constant attacks from the Democratic-Republican press, which had escalated after the signing of the Jay Treaty. Perhaps most importantly, Washington believed that he had accomplished his major goals as president. The nation had a stable economy, a strong grip over its Western territories, and peaceful relations with foreign powers. He delayed a formal announcement until later in the year, but began drafting his Farewell Address. Washington's retirement was a momentous decision, as at that time in the western world , national leaders rarely relinquished their titles voluntarily.

    In , when Washington had considered retiring after one term, he turned to James Madison for help composing a "valedictory address" to the public. Now, four years later, he turned to Alexander Hamilton for guidance. Over the course of several months, Hamilton and the president collaborated on the form and wording of the address. One of Hamilton's drafts included pointedly sharp criticism of the newspapers and the press of the day, something subsequently not included in the final, finished letter.

    It was immediately reprinted in newspapers and as a pamphlet throughout the United States. Washington makes clear at the outset that he was not running for a third term, and then thanks his fellow citizens for the opportunity to serve as their president. Concerned about the obstacles and potential hazards that lay ahead for the nation, Washington urges the nation's people to cherish and safeguard their hard-won system of republican government despite their many differences.

    The unity of government which constitutes you one people is also now dear to you. It is justly so; for it is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence, the support of your tranquility at home, your peace abroad, of your safety, of your prosperity, of that very liberty which you so highly prize. The address is largely a statement of his policies while in office, with some comments mixed in to highlight certain points, [] in which he builds a case for the steps needed to perpetuate the union , a concept that began to germinate among and between the states during the Revolutionary War.

    In doing so he lifts up a well-formed and functioning Constitution the rule of law , along with the proper habits and dispositions both intellectual and religious of the people as essential. Washington also lays out the greatest threats he sees to the Union, warning Americans to distrust the passions of political factionalism, be wary of foreign interference in the nation's domestic affairs, and avoid an entangling foreign policy.

    After Washington's death in , the address was reprinted in newspapers, and included in schoolbooks and collections of Washington's writings and biographies throughout the country. Senate observes Washington's Birthday February 22 each year by selecting one of its members, alternating parties, to read the address in legislative session. Today the address is primarily remembered for its words concerning non-involvement in European wars and politics.

    For much of the 19th century, the expanse of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans had made it possible for the U. The first international presidential trip was made in by Theodore Roosevelt , [] and subsequently, during World War I , Woodrow Wilson made a case for U. Washington's announcement on September 19, , that he would not be a candidate for a third term was, in the words of congressman Fisher Ames , "a signal, like dropping a hat, for the party racers to start. Like the previous two presidential elections, no candidates were put forward for voters to choose between in The Constitution provided for the selection of electors, [k] who would then elect a president.

    The Democratic-Republicans in Congress held a nominating caucus and named Jefferson and Aaron Burr as their presidential choices. Jefferson at first declined the nomination, but he agreed to run a few weeks later. Federalist members of Congress held an informal nominating caucus and named Adams and Thomas Pinckney as their candidates for president.

    In early November, France's ambassador to the U. He coerced South Carolina Federalist electors, pledged to vote for " favorite son " Pinckney, to scatter their second votes among candidates other than Adams.

    Hamilton's scheme was undone when several New England state electors heard of it, conferred, and agreed not to vote for Pinckney. The electoral votes were counted during a Joint Session of Congress on February 8, ; Adams won the presidency by a narrow margin, garnering 71 electoral votes to 68 for Jefferson who became the vice president.

    Pinckney 1. George Washington's presidency has generally been viewed as one of the most successful, and he is often considered to be one of the three greatest American presidents ever. Schlesinger Sr. Washington has been heavily written about, with more than books having been written about him. He was the symbol of the presidency [but] Washington had done little in his own right, had often opposed the best measures of his subordinates, and had taken credit for his achievements that he had no share in bringing about.

    Washington's profound achievements built the foundations of a powerful national government that has survived for more than two centuries. He had restored American credit and assumed state debt; created a bank, a mint, a coast guard, a customs service, and a diplomatic corps; introduced the first accounting, tax, and budgetary procedures; maintained peace at home and abroad; inaugurated a navy, bolstered the army, and shored up coastal defenses and infrastructure; proved that the country could regulate commerce and negotiate binding treaties; protected frontier settlers, subdued Indian uprisings, and established law and order amid rebellion, scrupulously adhering all the while to the letter of the Constitution Most of all he had shown a disbelieving world that republican government could prosper without being spineless or disorderly or reverting to authoritarian rule.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. First United States presidential term. This article is part of a series about. Commander in Chief of the Continental Army. Main article: —89 United States presidential election. Main article: United States presidential election, Main article: List of federal judges appointed by George Washington. Further information: History of Washington, D. Main article: Whiskey Rebellion. Main article: Northwest Indian War. Further information: History of U.

    Main article: George Washington's Farewell Address. Further information: Post-presidency of George Washington. North Carolina and Rhode Island did not participate as they had not yet ratified the Constitution. The New York legislature failed to appoint its allotted electors in time, so there were no voting electors from New York. He also stated that, due to American aggression in the region, the U. As well as John Jay, Chief Justices Oliver Ellsworth and John Marshall also served dual executive and judicial offices in the early decades of the nation's existence.

    Jackson was appointed to serve as U. Chief of Counsel for the prosecution of Nazi war criminals at the —46 Nuremberg trials , [] and Chief Justice Earl Warren was appointed as chairman of the commission formed to investigate the assassination of John F. Only when New York was induced to renounce its claim in exchange for financial remuneration; an agreement formally accepted by both jurisdictions as of October 28, was Statehood possible.

    The Virginia General Assembly adopted legislation on December 18, , separating its "District of Kentucky" from the rest of the State and approving its statehood. The precedent was exceeded only once, by Franklin D. Roosevelt , who was elected to four terms, and served from through The 22nd Amendment , proposed and ratified following Franklin Roosevelt's presidency, provides that "No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice.

    In the remaining nine states, they were chosen by the state's legislature. Archived from the original on November 14, Retrieved March 18, Archived from the original on July 28, Retrieved July 14, Founders Online. Archived from the original on March 18, Archived from the original on July 17, Temple Law Review. Archived from the original on October 18, Retrieved March 19, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. Archived from the original on January 14, Archived from the original on July 20, Washington, D.

    October American Heritage. Rockville, Maryland: American Heritage Publishing. Retrieved July 17, July 17, Archived from the original on July 19, Retrieved July 18, April 6, Archived from the original on February 4, George Washington's Mount Vernon. Mount Vernon Ladies' Association. Retrieved January 5, Senate Journal. John Quincy Adams. Da Capo Press. Archived from the original on July 31, Retrieved July 15, Cosimo, Inc.

    Christian Science Monitor. January 21, Archived from the original on March 21, Alexander Hamilton. Houghton, Mifflin. University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on January 20, National Constitution Center. Retrieved April 14, Retrieved July 28, Retrieved on July 23, United States Senate. Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved March 20, March The New England Quarterly. This Day In History. Archived from the original on July 1, January Fine Books Notes. May 15, Archived from the original on August 7, University of Michigan.

    Archived from the original on June 6, Retrieved October 7, FOX News Network. Retrieved April 23, Senate: Supreme Court Nominations: —Present".

    Biblioteca Madre María Teresa Guevara

    Archived from the original on February 21, Retrieved February 20, American Bar Association. Chicago, Illinois. Archived from the original on August 24, Retrieved August 24, Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. Federal Judicial Center. Eisenstadt The Encyclopedia of New York State. Syracuse UP. Archived from the original on July 4, Retrieved August 21, It also shows important political actors such as Caspar Weinberger who received pardons, listing the pardoner near end of the entry. File claims to be incomplete; but it's a good start. Like its counterpart above, it provides enough detail to allow reading side by side with its advocates.

    Original passage history of the lengthy title law is remarkably brief, about four days' worth with one-sided wartime floor votes for passage USA PATRIOT Act - Wikipedia - Legislative History plus some folding-in of earlier legislation following the terrorist attack. This went into effect upon succession from Clinton to Bush on 20 January One can confirm this via tax returns from the current Clinton return back through Nixon in , plus four returns from Franklin Roosevelt in the s, at Presidential Tax Returns.

    Comparative pay can only be interpreted with an historic account of inflation, measured via Consumer Price Index see file under that heading above. Professor Robert Sahr at Oregon State provides this with Inflation conversion factors for dollars est. These include graphics such as www. During the modern presidency, there are three upward spikes, two for doubling of pay, and one for the depression s deflation of prices. Plum Book Main Page is linked to these from , and but none earlier than that.

    Plum Book: About explains its operation. See PollingReport. Also try RealClear Politics - Polls with a dozen or more battleground states featured. Presidential Elections is also comprehensive. His chief advice is to employ mega-poll averaging via sites like the three that are listed above. He and Mystery Pollster Mark Blumenthal with blog at Mystery Pollster also advise that one follow Pew Center poll director Andy Kohut's advice to watch the incumbent candidate Bush rather than Kerry, because late undecided voters tend to break strongly for the challenger.

    Portraits of the Presidents and First Ladies Home Page Library of Congress has official and unofficial portraits of nearly all presidents, and many of the First Ladies. The Portraits of the Presidents from the National Portrait Gallery is another source--but be patient, as thumbnail downloads are quite slow. Presidential Conventions from Life Magazine shows presidential candidates at the party nominating conventions of through I'm the website manager for PRG; suggestions on its coverage and organization can go to Russell Renka at rdrenka semo.

    Note the Appointee Contributions analysis to see who gave what in precedence of taking appointments, for the Clinton and Bush administrations; excellent for students of ambassadorial appointments. The Documents Center conveniently lists the various formal names used by administrations since for these decisions. Their list also shows the varying terminology used over time for these directives. Clinton Presidential Library George W. That breathless filename denotes one of the nation's two highest civilian awards in recognition of exceptional merit.

    These sometimes go to the "heroes of the Gallery" present at Reagan and post-Reagan era televised State of the Union addresses. Executive Order established this Medal in , and in President Kennedy changed its emphasis from military to civilian merit. Further detail on this and related items is above in Executive Orders and Presidential Proclamations. In turn, the Presidential Records Reform Act of would "nullify the Bush executive order and establish procedures to ensure the timely release of presidential records. Testimony in shows this law's implications for executive privilege, at Statement of Mark J.

    Rozell on the Presidential Records Act. The President attends this annual event in expectation of being the butt of good-natured humor from a prominent comedian. Usually that is what happens. The systematic practice dates from Reagan's second term in The rationale is that the Congress frequently attaches statements of "legislative intent" to guide courts on interpreting a prospective law prior to its presentation to the President; so presidents ought to do the same.

    Below the radar for a long time, journalists at start of year have noted Judge Samuel A. Scholars and bloggers have taken note via papers and books from Phillip J. Kelley's view is obviously at some variance from Cooper's. Many links are available through Wikipedia footnotes at Signing statement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Democrats in Congress sought further disclosures such primary evidence--without success.

    Political Science / Public Policy Resources: Reference Tools

    Meanwhile the Bush Administration and the CIA resist declassification of older documents and others from their own tenure. See also Thomas S. See Richard J. It goes by the commonly used Presidents' Day and also officially in the federal government Washington's Birthday designation. Presidents' Day is a calendric site with explanatory links.

    It is representative of many school sites for kids' observance of this event. They routinely meet the Press Secretary and occasionally the President in periodic Press Conferences. White House Correspondents List - washingtonpost. Appleman with Democracy in Action, Inc. Its Clickable Map of the United States has information on each state's primary procedures, lists of candidates, and major newspapers.

    All are well linked. Rules for presidential campaign finance are briefly explicated at its Presidential Campaign Finance--Main Page. For serious followers and junkies alike, every conceivable candidate who might make the news has linked sites on the principal page see also immediately below. See The Rest of the Primaries for the section shown below the calendar entitled Frontloading and Compression: Primaries Will Go Off "Like a String of Firecrackers" demonstrating that early March March 7 and 14 was intensively front-loaded by both parties, even though the Republicans conferred extra delegates to states willing to move to the rear of the calendar.

    Over half the delegates in each party were selected by March 7 alone! For another interpretation of crowding of the presidential primaries into early weeks in , see Washingtonpost. It shows increased crowding due to California's move from its traditional June date to March 7, California was also a "jungle primary," designed to promote ideological moderation of candidate positions in lieu of the left or right positioning of traditional party primaries in that state.

    Thanks to my former student Jeremy McCrary for this link and description. Regional Primary Elections Plan - Sooner or later something like this appears inevitable. This is a rotating regional primary plan based on four natural state groupings Eastern, Southern, Midwestern, and Western with each taking turn going first. Profiles of U. Graff includes Profiles of U. Presidents - General Information based on the publication of its third edition; Profiles of U. Presidents - Grant - Eisenhower to and finally Profiles of U. Presidents - Kennedy - Bush to the present.

    Each president gets an article followed by a Forum site at bottom of the file. Project Look Sharp - Media Construction of Presidential Campaigns has 9 segments dating from the first serious presidential campaign in year through the Bush v. Kerry campaign. Designed with lesson plans for grades, it also provides ample illustrative material for college and university use. Materials date back to Herbert Hoover. Bush in to Clinton in The National Archives Archives. For specific presidents, consult that president's Library for more Public Papers.

    Included is some recent information on incidence of use. There is also American Rhetoric - Rhetorical Figures in Sound with many excerpted examples of these from presidential speeches. American Rhetoric Online Bank has many recent presidential speeches. The Rhetoric of covers presidential statements and those of other principals for the year after this event. A concise historical take on the emergence of the modern rhetorical office is Arthur Schlesinger Intro The State of the Union Messages , based on a publication.

    For secondary, Presidential Rhetoric Sources lists academic books and articles alphabetically by last name of first author. All the modern presidents are listed along with articles and sources specific to each of them. Another extensive source list is Rhetorical studies in pol comm from Allan Louden's Political Communication website. Welcome to PresidentialRhetoric. Bush speeches, mostly from recent months but also covering major and speeches. Epideictic ceremonial rhetoric is prominent among presidential speeches, especially inaugurals. The file presidential genres from Campbell and Jamieson is a brief summary of the forms and settings for presidential rhetoric.

    Impeachments are included; one can find specific material on that in this website, under "Impeachments The practice arose with the Clinton Administration in and is routine practice of the current George W. Bush White House per this link. The Johnson one includes numerous conservations with Wilbur Mills and others who were instrumental in creating the Medicare program in There is also a Social Security - Presidential Statements file with material from 12 presidents starting with Franklin Roosevelt in Site of choice is run by NASA itself at history. Since 1 February this has been a prime site on loss of Shuttle Columbia on that date.

    Extensive links also go to the 28 January loss of Challenger. But most of the links demonstrate the triumphs and successes of the program. Other evidence of that is detailed below under Kennedy, then Johnson, and Nixon, for the watershed period of and the Cold War-driven space race. The Federation of American Scientists maintains Space Policy Project with very broad coverage, including detailed history, references to space enterprises of the former Soviet Union, and many other facets.

    Challenger and Columbia disaster reviews are extensive. All files are nicely organized to show the speech author, link, and brief excerpt setting its theme and memorable lines. It is up to date enough in November to include President George W. Bush's 20 September speech "Justice will be done.

    Associated with it are brief contextual citations. Five speeches are from Franklin Roosevelt, including his "grilled millionaire" and the celebrated "My Dog Fala" of There is also Harry Truman's "do-nothing Congress" of , Eisenhower's Guildhall address and warning against an Indo-China "domino effect"; Nixon's Checkers and Kitchen Debate in Moscow with Khrushchev; three from Kennedy; an example of Johnson on the telephone; and others.

    Some are difficult to find elsewhere. In addition to these, other major political figures are chronologically shown to help set context for presidential offerings. American Rhetoric: The Top American Speeches of the 20th Century has famous presidential speeches in print, audio, and video forms. American Presidency has many audio and video speech excerpts organized on a vertical time line, starting with Harrison , including a handful for early 20th century presidents, and then offering a wide array from Franklin Roosevelt through Bill Clinton.

    Most are from inaugural or State of the Union addresses, but the Kennedy excerpt is from the Cuban missile crisis. Speeches of the Presidents of the United States has RealAudio files from all 20th century presidents. All are billed by The History Place as dramatic, and indeed some are. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, and Bill Clinton. Sound Bytes from Grolier Encyclopedia contains one sound byte sample per president back to Cleveland and forward to Reagan. Welcome to the White House search protocol leads to innumerable ones. But as so often systematic data on these events may not exist on the web until someone compiles it.

    Also see State of the Union Address - Wikipedia. It explains distinction of State of the Union from related terms. C-SPAN at www. Video links also exist for years , and , and to the present. These documents undergo extensive word analysis. Brad Borevitz of onetwothree. See also: Inaugural Addresses; Farewell Addresses. Census Bureau. Earlier pdf files on are now numerous at Google. For comparing to other data sets, consult Grace York's Statistical Resources on the Web-Comprehensive Sources ; and see next entry below. Statistical Information on the U. FedStats Home Page advertises as the gateway to more than federal government statistics resources.

    The Library of Congress has a wide array of links, some from statistical sources. See also Line of Succession. The major succession crisis was in amidst Watergate turmoil when Vice-President Agnew resigned office in October and then Nixon himself turned over the presidency to Agnew's 25th Amendment successor, Gerald Ford. Presidents who left office prematurely or nearly did so for various reasons are in US Presidents Lists and Records under the "Presidents" subheading. Senate has information on the Vice-Presidency and succession to the Presidency, at U.

    Senate -Senate Briefings - President of the Senate. Thanks to my student Adam Baker for this link. FindLaw U. Constitution Twentieth Amendment provides the Senate's stated rationale for enacting this succession amendment in Constitution Twenty-Fifth Amendment has the provisions for replacement of vice-presidential vacancies and for dealing with presidential disability.

    Also note FindLaw U. Constitution Twenty-Second Amendment for creation of the presidential two-term limit influencing the importance of the Vice-Presidency. The taping practice of each is separately discussed. For specific presidential library and other transcripts, confer below under individual presidents, dating from Kennedy through Clinton. Some are major speech events.

    Other spots are commemorations of library openings, and recollections from friends, associates, and scholars. S Presidency and Television by Roderick P. Political Processes and Television provides some background context on modern television coverage of political events and persons. Watergate receives its due in U. Congress and Television. Ronald Reagan's television career is profiled at Reagan, Ronald.

    All sites are part of The Museum of Broadcast Communications. Volume I www. The Executive Summary of U. Included is a "proposal for a new, cabinet-level National Homeland Security Agency that would combine the Federal Emergency Management Agency with several other agencies, and a prescription for recasting a "crippled" State Department and the Department of Defense. It has an Interactive Timeline dating from Hoover through Clinton, based on the 12 presidential libraries. Personal history of each president is The Presidential Timeline of the Twentieth Century - Index with presidential names, a list of Exhibits, and a Gallery of records from each Library.

    Bush with links from each and assignments, so watch out to avoid that. Also see Cold War - Timeline Index. See also from this file: Cold War extensive and detailed timelines for Truman to Clinton. The 9 postwar transitions by regular calendar concluded in January of , , , , , , , , and All but saw a change of party control Renka, Party Control of the Presidency and Congress, Also see Presidential Transition Resources.

    Brookings Institution has The Presidential Transition. These are often major lost opportunities; see The Hazards , and The Opportunities , for illustration. Government Performance Coalition is a consortium of organizations seeking to improve the overall quality of management in key government positions. Use List by President to see the dramatically increased 20th century travel practices of modern presidents.

    Constitutional War Power: The Founders' Framework

    Cost of this is occasionally a political issue. Trivia U. Tutorials and Links and Lessons are included. Presidential Trivia from the National Park Service has 3 or 4 pointers on each of the 43 presidents. US Presidents Lists and Records has 11 categories; no links out, but a lot of little details. But some are not accurate. Presidential Trivia use Q and A format in print. Video Fascinating Facts About U. Presidents from National Geographic is a short video with "quirks and curiosities" dating from Confederation days. Presidential Trivia from Borgna Brunner with Infoplease. The topic is much in the news and blogs during the January Senate hearings on Supreme Court nominee Samuel Alito; see Christopher Kelley's Media Watch for a critical take on Alito's expansive view as a "unitarian.

    History Channel has audio and summation of the most dramatic moment of its postwar annals, the confrontation by UN Ambassador Adlai Stevenson in with the Soviets over missiles in Cuba. The official site is United Nations Home Page. This is a comprehensive set of lists on all kinds of subjects.

    Few are linked anywhere else, but some have explanatory briefs associated with the list. Included are very useful items such as the historical ranking of 41 presidents conducted from Siena College, the relative share of popular and Electoral College vote each president won, regular and pocket vetoes issued by each, and so on. The list of Presidents itself includes links to the White House file for each President. Fun browsing for all. Escape from Pennsylvania Avenue! The most famous mixed work-and-recreation site for modern presidents since Eisenhower is Camp David in the mountains of Maryland north of the capitol.

    It has served since Franklin Roosevelt's day as a frequent weekend escape from D. Line-item vetoes are labeled "Presidential Cancellations" and listed at this site as well. Explanation and brief history of the veto is at Encyclopedia Americana-Veto. Also see Presidential Vetoes — for downloadable data showing the number of vetoes by type, plus overrides, for each President from Washington through Clinton's last full year. Presidents by Number of Vetoes lists number of vetoes, without elaboration. Primary documents are at the H-Net Diplomatic History site Documents Relating to the Vietnam War dating back to ; an outstanding, carefully selected set of papers.

    Included are numerous s retrospective reviews on the American-Vietnamese war period of American RadioWorks - Vietnam and the Presidency is a March Kennedy Library conference document with 7 sessions and valuable interviews plus an hour-long documentary and transcript. Historical Analysis and Stories and Snapshots has biographical detail.

    Brief book list on VPs is at Principal Sources. But some of their links are inoperative; for instance, the "Vice Presidential Succession" part has five pertinent link topics, but none of them are working. For basics on the office, see Irving G. Despite the office's importance today as an obvious primary avenue to the presidency, the earlier history of the office inspired Steve Tally to title a book Bland Ambition. The publisher offers a question Trivia Quiz, at vice presidents trivia. For those who would dismiss Vice Presidents, consult Vice Presidents Who Became President for a different view; so far, 14 of them have become President.

    Vice President Dick Cheney has raised the issue of whether the Vice Presidency is a legislative, executive, or other constitutional office. Text is shown at The War Powers Act of It can be labeled either an Act or a Resolution--and this affects which sites a search engine will pull up. The controversy continues during the Clinton Administration. The most recent challenges to presidential war powers based on desire to invoke this Resolution are from Rep. See also: references under Nixon, Ford, and Clinton. Washington D. Their Overview has the famous doomsday clock, dating from Links are plentiful, with most but not all emphasis upon nuclear weapons.

    I recommend "West Wing of the White House" as your search term. West Wing - Wikipedia explains that this is the locale of the President and senior members of the Executive Office of the President , while keeping it all separate from the popular television series The West Wing - Wikipedia. West Wing - White House Museum has detailed floor plans with links to each room, plus a historical text accompanied by extensive photographs dating back to the 19th century.

    The highly cramped West Wing First Floor has a tiny "Lav" alongside all the most important locations. West Wing Second Floor has lesser but still important offices. Click on each office for photographs. Inside the Real West Wing washingtonpost. ORG was a defiantly anti-George W. Echoes From the White House PBS has 11 thumbnail links that illustrate interesting historical aspects of this House and the presidential life within it.

    The White House Historical Association at www.